RRomanticism and romanticism, and the Romantic school - An art movement and style that flourished in the early nineteenth century. It emphasized the emotions painted in a bold, dramatic manner. Romantic artists rejected the cool reasoning of classicism — the established art of the times — to paint pictures of nature in its untamed state, or other exotic settings filled with dramatic action, often with an emphasis on the past. Classicism was nostalgic too, but Romantics were more emotional, usually melancholic, even melodramatically tragic.

Paintings by members of the French Romantic school include those by Théodore Géricault (French, 1791-1824) and Eugène Delacroix (French, 1798-1863), filled with rich color, energetic brushwork, and dramatic and emotive subject matter. In England the Romantic tradition began with Henry Fuseli (Swiss-English, 1741-1825) and William Blake (1757-1827), and culminated with Joseph M. W. Turner (1775-1851) and John Constable (1776-1837). The German landscape painter Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840) produced images of solitary figures placed in lonely settings amidst ruins, cemetaries, frozen, watery, or rocky wastes. And in Spain, Francisco Goya (1746-1828) depicted the horrors of war along with aristocratic portraits.

 

Examples of works of this period are:

Listing chronologically by artist's birth year

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Sir Joshua Reynolds (English, 1723-1792), General John Burgoyne, c. 1766, oil on canvas, 50 x 39 7/8 inches (127 x 101.3 cm), Frick Collection, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftPhilip James De Loutherbourg (English, 1740-1812), The Battle of the Nile, 1800, oil on canvas, 152.4 x 214.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightPhilip James De Loutherbourg, An Avalanche in the Alps, 1803, oil on canvas, 109.9 x 160.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London. See nocturne.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftHenry Fuseli (born Johann Heinrich Füssli) (English, born Switzerland, 1741-1825), Percival Delivering Belisane from the Enchantment of Urma, 1783, oil on canvas, 99.1 x 125.7 cm, Tate Gallery, London. In his native Switzerland, Fuseli studied to be a priest, and then came to London in the 1760s to study writers of 'genius', such as Shakespeare and Milton. In London he decided to become a painter and gained fame for the nightmarish intensity of his images, which often show characters overtaken by madness. See self-portrait.

 

 

Henry Fuseli, Titania, Bottom and the Fairies, painting. In a scene from Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, Bottom, the fellow with the enlarged ears, has temporarily been turned into a donkey. Tatiana, the Queen of the Fairies, has been moved by a magic spell to fall in love with him.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightHenry Fuseli, Titania and Bottom, c. 1790, oil on canvas, 217.2 x 275.6 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftHenry Fuseli, The Shepherd's Dream, from 'Paradise Lost', 1793, oil on canvas, 154.3 x 215.3 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightHenry Fuseli, The Night-Hag Visiting Lapland Witches, 1796, oil on canvas, 40 x 49 3/4 inches (101.6 x 126.4 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Born in Switzerland, of Swiss and German parents, Fuseli migrated to Berlin in 1763, where his illustrations of Shakespearean themes caught the attention of the British ambassador, who convinced him to visit England. Several years later he moved to Rome. By 1779 he had returned to England, and the best of his paintings were completed in London.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftHenry Fuseli, Lady Macbeth Seizing the Daggers, 1812, oil on canvas, 101.6 x 127.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFrancisco José de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish, 1746-1828), Condesa de Altamira and Her Daughter, Maria Agustina, 1787-1788, oil on canvas, 76 7/8 x 45 1/4 inches (195 x 115 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFrancisco José de Goya y Lucientes, Don Manuel Osorio Manrique de Zuñiga (1784-1792), possibly 1790s, oil on canvas, 50 x 40 inches (127 x 101.6 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFrancisco de Goya y Lucientes, Saturn Devouring one of his Sons, mural transferred to canvas, (146 x 83 cm), Prado Museum, Madrid. See grotesque and mythology.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFrancisco José de Goya y Lucientes, Giant, by 1818, XIX, burnished aquatint, first state; sheet: 11 1/4 x 8 1/4 inches (28.5 x 21.01cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFrancisco José de Goya y Lucientes, The Forge, between c. 1815 and 1820, oil on canvas, 71 1/2 x 49 1/4 inches (181.6 x 125.1 cm), Frick Collection, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightWilliam Blake (English, 1757-1827), Pity, c. 1795, color print finished in ink and watercolor on paper, 42.5 x 53.9 cm, Tate Gallery, London. The subject is partly drawn from Shakespeare's play Macbeth. See illustration.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftWilliam Blake, Elohim Creating Adam, 1795 / c. 1805, color print finished in ink and watercolor on paper, 43.1 x 53.6 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightWilliam Blake, Newton, 1795 / c. 1805, color print finished in ink and watercolor on paper, 46.0 x 60.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftCaspar David Friedrich (German, 1774-1840), On Board a Sailing Ship, 1818-1820, oil on canvas, 28 x 22 inches (71 x 56 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightCaspar David Friedrich, The Solitary Tree, 1822, oil on canvas, 55 x 71 cm, Nationalgalerie, Berlin. A lone shepherd leans against the trunk of this ancient tree, watching his flock of sheep.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftCaspar David Friedrich, Woman at a Window, 1822, Nationalgalerie, Berlin. A lone woman stands gazing out an upper-storey window. We see the top of a sailboat's rigging against the sky.

 

 

Caspar David Friedrich, Moonrise, 1835-1837, sepia wash over a pencil sketch, bordered with India ink, 24.5 x 34.5 cm, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJoseph Mallord William Turner (English, 1775-1851), Moonlight, a Study at Millbank, 1797, oil on canvas, Tate Museum, London. See English art and nocturne.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJoseph Mallord William Turner, Conway Castle, North Wales, 1798, watercolor and gum arabic with graphite underdrawing, 21 1/8 inches x 30 1/8 inches (53.6 x 76.7 cm), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJoseph Mallord William Turner, Cologne: The Arrival of a Packet-Boat: Evening, 1826, oil and possibly watercolor on canvas, 66 3/8 x 88 1/4 inches (168.6 x 224.1 cm), Frick Collection, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJoseph Mallord William Turner, The Harbor of Dieppe, 1826?, oil on canvas, 68 3/8 x 88 3/4 inches (173.7 x 225.4 cm), Frick Collection, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJoseph Mallord William Turner, Saint Denis, c. 1833, oil on canvas, Tate Museum, London. See nocturne.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJoseph Mallord William Turner, The Grand Canal, Venice, c. 1835, oil on canvas, 36 x 48 1/8 inches (91.4 x 122.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJoseph Mallord William Turner, The Lake of Zug, 1843, watercolor with gouache and colored chalks, over traces of graphite; extensive scraping with penknife, 11 3/4 x 18 3/8 inches (29.8 x 46.6 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJohn Constable (English, 1776-1837), Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Grounds, c. 1825, oil on canvas, 34 5/8 x 44 inches (87.9 x 111.8 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

Théodore Géricault (French, 1791-1824), The Raft of the Medusa, 1819, oil on canvas, 4.91 x 7.16 m, Louvre. Géricault pictures a real-life drama of 149 shipwrecked sailors from the frigate "Medusa", abandoned for twelve days on a raft off the Senegalese coast. He chose to depict the moment on July 17, 1816 when the 15 survivors were overcome with despair as the "Argus", the ship that eventually was to rescue them, sailed off.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFrancis Danby (English, 1793-1861), Romantic Woodland, c. 1824-5, watercolor, gum arabic and pencil on paper, 19.4 x 26.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFrancis Danby (British, 1793-1861), The Deluge, exhibited 1840, oil on canvas, 284.5 x 452.1 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (French, 1796-1875), The Lake, 1861, oil on canvas, 52 3/8 x 62 inches (133 x 157.5 cm), Frick Collection, NY.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightCarl Blechen (German, 1798-1840), The Interior of the Palm House, 1832, oil on paper, mounted on canvas, 64 x 56 cm, Nationalgalerie, Berlin.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFerdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix (French, 1798-1863), Saada, the Wife of Abraham Benchimol, and Préciada, One of Their Daughters, 1832, watercolor over graphite, 8 3/4 x 6 3/8 inches (22.2 x 16.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

Ferdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix, Strolling Players, 1833, watercolor, 9 3/4 x 7 1/4 inches (24.8 x 18.4 cm), Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFerdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix, Fanatics of Tangier, 1837-1838, oil on canvas, 38 1/2 x 51 1/2 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts. See Orientalism.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFerdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix, The Abduction of Rebecca, 1846, oil on canvas, 39 1/2 x 32 1/4 inches (100.3 x 81.9 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFerdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix, Lion Hunt in Morocco, 1854, oil on canvas, 74 x 92 cm, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAttributed to Ferdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix, Lion Devouring a Goat, mid 19th century, oil on canvas, 17 x 27 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts. See animalia.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightSamuel Palmer (English, 1805-1881), A Hilly Scene, c. 1826-8, watercolor and gum arabic on paper on mahogany, 206 x 13.7 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftSamuel Palmer, A Cornfield by Moonlight with the Evening Star, c. 1830, watercolor with body color and pen and ink, British Museum, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightSamuel Palmer, A Dream in the Apennine, exhibited 1864, watercolor and gouache on paper laid on wood, 66.0 x 101.6 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJean-Jacques Feuchère (French, 1807-1852), Satan, c. 1836, , bronze, height 31 inches (78.7 cm), Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAndreas Achenbach (German, 1815-1910), Sunset after a Storm on the Coast of Sicily, 1853, oil on canvas, 32 3/4 x 42 1/4 inches (83.2 x 107.3 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftGeorge Inness (American, 1825-1894), Spring Blossoms, Montclair, New Jersey, 1891?, oil and crayon or charcoal on canvas, 29 x 45 1/4 inches (73.7 x 114.9 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

Frederic Edwin Church (American, 1826-1900), The Icebergs, 1861, oil on canvas, 64 1/2 x 112 1/2 inches (163.8 x 285.8 cm), Dallas Museum of Art. See Hudson River School and Luminism.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftArnold Böcklin (Swiss, 1827-1901), The Island of the Dead, 1883, oil on wood panel, 80 x 150 cm, Nationalgalerie, Berlin. See Symbolism.


 


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