ArtLex Art Dictionary

 

 

 

Examples of landscape paintings by artists born before 1700:

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftRussia, North Caucasus, Maikop Burial Mound, Vessel Decorated with Animals and a 'Landscape', middle of the 3rd millennium BCE, silver, height 9.6 cm, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

Note the gap of nearly 2,000 - 3,000 years here.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightRome, Polyphemus and Galatea in a landscape, c. 31 BCE - 50 CE, mid-Augustan, Third Style, fresco, height 73 3/4 inches (187.33 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See Roman art.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftRoman, Stabiae, Landscape, c. 40 CE, fresco "end of Third Style", scene: 66.2-66.6 x 52.3-52.8 cm, white border: 2-7 mm, red wall: 7.7-15.5 cm, George Ortiz collection. Allegedly from Stabiae. See tratteggio.

 

 

Note the gap of nearly 1,500 years here.

 

 

 

Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 1452-1519), Mona Lisa (La Joconde) (1479 - d. before 1550), c. 1503-1506, oil on wood panel, height 77 cm, Louvre. This most famous of paintings is important for many reasons, not least of which is the prominence Leonardo gave to its landscape background. In it he pioneered the use of aerial perspective and sfumato. See Renaissance.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftPieter Bruegel the Elder (Netherlandish, c. 1525-1569), The Harvesters, 1565, oil on wood panel; overall, including added strips at top, bottom, and right, 46 7/8 x 63 3/4 inches (119 x 162 cm); original painted surface 45 7/8 x 62 7/8 inches (116.5 x 159.5 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

see thumbnail to rightEl Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos) (Spanish, born Crete, 1541-1614), View of Toledo, oil on canvas, 47 3/4 x 42 3/4 inches (121.3 x 108.6 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.) See Mannerism.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftKerstiaen de Keuninck (Flemish, c. 1560 - 1632/33), A Mountainous Landscape with a Waterfall, probably c. 1600, oil on wood panel, 27 1/4 x 48 inches (69.2 x 121.9 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

Jan Brueghel the Elder (Flemish , 1568-1625), Latona and the Lycian Peasants, c. 1605, oil on wood panel, 37 x 56 cm, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

 

see thumbnail to leftJan Brueghel the Elder, A Woodland Road with Travelers, 1607, oil on wood panel, 18 1/8 x 32 3/4 inches (46 x 83.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See panorama.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightPeter Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1577-1640), A Forest at Dawn with a Deer Hunt, c. 1635, oil on wood panel, 24 1/4 x 35 1/2 inches (61.5 x 90.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftNicolas Poussin (French, 1594-1665), Landscape with Polyphemus, oil on canvas, 149 x 197.5 cm, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. See Baroque.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJan Josephsz. van Goyen (Dutch, 1596-1656), The Pelkus Gate near Utrecht, 1646, oil on wood panel, 14 1/2 x 22 1/2 inches (36.8 x 57.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

see thumbnail to leftClaude Lorrain (Claude Gellée) (French, 1600/5?-1682), Pastoral Landscape, 1638, oil on canvas, 38 1/4 x 51 1/4 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts.

 

 

Claude Lorrain (Claude Gellée), View of Tivoli at Sunset, 1644, oil on canvas, 39 1/2 x 53 1/2 inches (100 x 136 cm), Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA. See Baroque.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightClaude Lorrain (Claude Gellée), The Ford, possibly 1636, oil on canvas, 29 1/4 x 39 3/4 inches (74.3 x 101 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftClaude Lorrain (Claude Gellée), Sunrise, possibly 1646-47, oil on canvas, 40 1/2 x 52 3/4 inches (102.9 x 134 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightClaude Lorrain (Claude Gellée), View of La Crescenza, 1648-50, oil on canvas, 15 1/4 x 22 7/8 inches (38.7 x 58.1 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftSalomon van Ruysdael (Dutch, 1600-1670), Drawing the Eel, 1650s, oil on wood panel, 29 1/2 x 41 3/4 inches (74.9 x 106 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAert van der Neer (Dutch, 1603/4-1677), Landscape at Sunset, oil on canvas, 20 x 28 1/8 inches (50.8 x 71.4 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAert van der Neer, Sports on a Frozen River, oil on wood panel, 9 1/8 x 13 3/4 inches (23.2 x 34.9 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606-1669), The Stone Bridge, c. 1637, oil on panel, 29.5 x 42.5 cm, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFrans Post (Dutch, c. 1612-1680), A Brazilian Landscape, 1650, oil on wood panel, 24 x 36 inches (61 x 91.4 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightPhilips Koninck (Dutch, 1619-1688), Wide River Landscape, c. 1648, oil on canvas, 16 1/4 x 22 7/8 inches (41.3 x 58.1 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftPhilips Koninck, An Extensive Wooded Landscape, oil on canvas, 32 3/4 x 44 5/8 inches (83.2 x 113.3 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJacob Isaacksz. van Ruisdael (Dutch, 1628/29-1682), Landscape with a Village in the Distance, 1646, oil on wood panel, 30 x 43 inches (76.2 x 109.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJacob Isaacksz. van Ruisdael, Dune Landscape with Oak Tree, 1650-55, black chalk, brush and gray wash and gouache, framing lines in pen and brown ink, 8 1/4 x 7 1/2 inches (21.0 x 19.1 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

Jacob Isaacksz. van Ruisdael, Landscape with a Footbridge, 1652, oil on canvas, 38 3/4 x 62 5/8 inches (98.4 x 159.1 cm), Frick Collection, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJacob Isaacksz. van Ruisdael, The Forest Stream, c. 1660, oil on canvas, 39 1/4 x 50 7/8 inches (99.7 x 129.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJacob Isaacksz. van Ruisdael, The Marsh, 1660s, oil on canvas, 28 1/2 x 39 inches (72.5 x 99 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJacob Isaacksz. van Ruisdael, Grainfields, c. 1665-69, oil on canvas, 18 1/2 x 22 1/2 inches (47 x 57.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

see thumbnail to leftJacob Isaacksz. van Ruisdael, Wheat Fields, c. 1670, oil on canvas, 39 3/8 x 51 1/4 inches (100 x 130.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJacob Isaacksz. van Ruisdael, Mountain Torrent, probably 1670s, oil on canvas, 21 1/4 x 16 1/2 inches (54 x 41.9 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftMeindert Hobbema (Dutch, 1638-1709), Entrance to a Village, c. 1665, oil on wood panel, 29 1/2 x 43 3/8 inches (74.9 x 110.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMeindert Hobbema, Woodland Road, probably c. 1670, oil on canvas, 37 1/4 x 51 inches (94.6 x 129.5 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftDao Ji (Shitao) (Chinese, 1642 - 1707 or 1708), Autumn Landscape, 1701, hanging scroll; ink and color on paper, signatures: Zing-Xiang chen ren, Dadizu, and Shitao; seals: five of the artist, two of the collector Ouyang Lin dated 1907, three of collectors in lower left, and four in the lower right corner, Worcester Art Museum, MA. See Chinese art.

 

 

 

Other examples of landscapes:

 

 

 

Also see buckeye, landscape architecture, pastoral, picturesque, rustic, sacral-idyllic scene, and seascape.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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