Gothic and gothic art - The name given to the style of architecture, painting, and sculpture which flourished in western Europe, mainly France and England, between the 12th and 15th centuries — the later Middle Ages.
Maurice de Sully (French), Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, 1163 - 1250, bearing masonry, cut stone. Notre Dame Cathedral was seminal in the evolution of the French Gothic style. It is 110 feet high — the first cathedral built on a truly monumental scale. With its compact, cruciform plan, its sexpartite vaulting, flying buttresses and vastly enlarged windows, it became a prototype for future French cathedrals. See gargoyle and rose window.
Giotto di Bondone (Italian, Florentine, 1266/76-1337), The Epiphany, possibly c. 1320, tempera on wood, gold ground, 17 3/4 x 17 1/4 inches (45.1 x 43.8 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)
Bernardo Daddi (Italian, Florentine, about 1280-1348), Triptych: Madonna, Saint Thomas Aquinas, and Saint Paul, about 1330, tempera and gold leaf on wood panel, 47 1/2 x 22 inches (120.7 x 55.9 cm), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA.
Simone Martini (Italian, c. 1284-1344), Madonna from the Annunciation, 1340-1344, tempera on wood panel, 12 x 8 1/2 inches (30.5 x 21.5 cm), State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. See Madonna.
Simone Martini (Italian, Sienese, active by 1315, died 1344), Saint Andrew, possibly c. 1330, tempera on wood panel, gold ground, 22 1/2 x 14 7/8 inches (57.2 x 37.8 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. (On the Met's page, you can enlarge any detail.)
Southern Germany, Stained Glass of St. George, 1400-1410, colored glass, lead, 59 x 39 cm, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. See stained glass.
Jan van Eyck (Flemish, 1395-1441), The Ghent altarpiece, 1432, oil on panels (triptych), 4 feet 9 1/2 inches x 6 feet 9 inches, Cathedral of St. Bavo, Ghent, Cathedral of St. Bavo, Ghent. Details: Adam from left wing, Eve from right. Detail of lower central panel: Worshippers.
Rogier van der Weyden (Dutch, 1399/1400-1464), The Deposition from the Cross, c. 1435, wood, (220 x 262 cm), Prado Museum, Madrid.
Hieronymus [Jerome] Van Aeken Bosch (Flemish, 1450-1516), The Haywain, c. 1485-90, oil on panels (triptych), El Escorial, Monasterio de San Lorenzo (or Prado, Madrid). Central panel, 140 x 100 cm. Left wing: Paradise, c. 147 x 66 cm. Right wing: Hell, 147 x 66 cm.
France, Dresser, second half of the 15th century, oak, carved, painted and gilt, copper, iron, 266 x 137 x 53.5 cm, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. See furniture.
Hieronymus [Jerome] Van Aeken Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights (triptych), c. 1500, Prado, Madrid. Creation of the World, depicting the third day of creation, the two closed outer wings (or shutters) for this triptych, each is 220 x 97 cm. Garden of Earthly Delights (Ecclesia's paradise), the central panel, 220 x 195 cm. Left wing: The Earthly Paradise (Garden of Eden), 220 x 97 cm. Right wing: Hell, 220 x 97 cm. Detail from right wing.
Jean Barbet (French, active 1475d.1514), Angel, 1475, bronze, height with wings 46 11/16 inches (118.6 cm), Frick Collection, NY. Inscribed in Gothic characters running vertically on the inside of the left wing: le xxviii jour de mars / lan mil cccc lx+xv jehan barbet dit de lion fist cest angelot. See lettering.
Matthias Grünewald (German, c.1475-1528), The Isenheim Alterpiece, c. 1512-16, oil on wood panels (triptych), 8 feet 10 inches x 4 feet 8 inches, executed for the hospital chapel of Saint Anthony's Monastery in Isenheim in Alsace, now in the Musee d'Unterlinded, Colma. Panel of the Isenheim Alterpiece: The Meeting of St Anthony Abbot and St Paul in the Wilderness, and The Temptation of St Anthony. The Crucifixion, detail from one of the closed wings. Detail of celebrating angels, from the lefthand portion of the central panel. The Resurrection, from the right panel (open).
The cathedral is the most impressive example of the Gothic style, characterized by pointed arches and flying buttresses. The term Gothic also refers to the Goths, a Germanic people of the Middle Ages.
Also see crocket, incunabulum, and misericord.