ArtLex Art Dictionary

 

 

 

GGerman art -

Making generalizations about the visual culture of any group of people is a crude endeavor, especially with a culture as diverse as Germany's. With this thought in mind, know that this survey, as any must be, is tremendously limited in its breadth and depth.

[Expect a more in-depth article to appear here soon.]the flag of contemporary Germany

 

 

 

Examples:

 

 

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see thumbnail to leftGermany, Altar Cloth: Christ in Judgment and others, second half of the 14th century, linen on linen, width 47 1/4 inches (120 cm), length 13 feet (396.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See altar.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightGermany / Switzerland, upper Rhenish (Strasbourg), The Queen of Sheba before King Solomon, 1490-1500, tapestry with linen warp, wool, linen, and metallic wefts, 31 x 40 inches (80 x 101.6 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See Swiss art.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftSouthern Germany, Stained Glass of St. George, 1400-1410, colored glass, lead, 59 x 39 cm, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightGermany, Tournament Shield (Targe), c. 1450, wood, leather, linen, gesso, polychromy, silver, 22 x 16 inches (56 x 40.5 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See arms & armor.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftGermany, Crossbow of Ulrich V, Duke of Württemberg, 1460, wood, iron, ivory, horn, whalebone, tendon, length 28 1/4 inches (71.7 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMartin Schongauer (German, c. 1445-1491), Christ Carrying the Cross, c. 1475-80, engraving, 11 3/8 x 16 7/8 inches (28.9 x 42.9 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

Joos van Cleve (German, c. 1464 - c. 1540), Maximilian I (1459-1519), Holy Roman Emperor, c. 1510, oil on wood panel, 34.5 x 24 cm, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAlbrecht Dürer (German, 1471-1528), The Walk, c. 1496-1498, 195 x 120 cm, engraving, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. See Northern Renaissance.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAlbrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait at Twenty-Seven, 1498, 20 1/2 x 16 1/8 inches, Museo del Prado, Madrid. See self-portrait.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightGermany (probably Nuremberg), Tournament Helm (Stechhelm), c. 1500, steel, brass, height 17 3/4 inches (45 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

see thumbnail to leftAlbrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve, 1504, engraving, 9 7/8 x 7 7/8 inches (25.1 x 20.0 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

Albrecht Altdorfer (German, c. 1480-1538), The Entrance Hall of the Regensburg Synagogue, 1519, etching, 6 1/4 x 4 3/8 inches (15.9 x 11.1 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftKolman Helmschmid (German, 1471-1532, Augsburg), Portions of a Costume Armor, c. 1525, steel, embossed, etched, and gilded, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAlbrecht Altdorfer (German, c. 1480-1538), Samson and Delilah (Judges 16:19), 1506, pen and dark brown ink, heightened with white, on brown prepared paper, 6 11/16 x 4 3/4 inches (17.0 x 12.0 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftHans Baldung Grien (German, 1484/85-1545), Christ as the Man of Sorrows, c. 1511-1512, black ink on pink paper, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightPeter Peck (German, 1500/10-1596, Munich), Double-Barreled Wheellock Pistol of Emperor Charles V, c. 1540-45, steel, etched and gilded, wood, inlaid with engraved staghorn, length 19 3/8 inches (49.2 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftMichael Ostendorfer (German, active 1520-1549), an illustration for Astronomicum Caesareum, written by Petrus Apianus, 1540, woodcut, hand-colored, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

Nuremberg School (last quarter of the 16th century), Satyr Mother with a Child Satyr, bronze, height 10 5/16 inches (26.2 cm), Frick Collection, NY. See satyr.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightGermany (probably Nuremberg), Tournament Book, late 16th century, pen and colored wash on paper, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

Germany, Bohemia, Humpen, 16-17th century, glass, height 11 5/8 inches (29.5 cm), Fine Art Museums of San Francisco, CA. See glass.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightHilt by Israel Schuech Dresden (German, active c. 1590-1610, Dresden), Blade by Juan Martinez (Toledo, Spain), Rapier of Prince-Elector Christian II of Saxony, 1606, steel, bronze-gilt with traces of enamel, paste jewels, cameos, pearls, length 48 inches (122 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAnton Raffael Mengs (German, 1728-1779), Perseus and Andromeda, 1777, oil on canvas, 227 x 153.5 cm, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. See Neoclassicism.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightCaspar David Friedrich (German, 1774-1840), On Board a Sailing Ship, 1818-1820, oil on canvas, 28 x 22 inches (71 x 56 cm), Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia. See Romanticism.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightCaspar David Friedrich, The Solitary Tree, 1822, oil on canvas, 55 x 71 cm, Nationalgalerie, Berlin. A lone shepherd leans against the trunk of this ancient tree, watching his flock of sheep.

 

see thumbnail to leftCaspar David Friedrich, Woman at a Window, 1822, Nationalgalerie, Berlin. A lone woman stands gazing out an upper-storey window. We see the top of a sailboat's rigging against the sky.

 

 

Caspar David Friedrich, Moonrise, 1835-1837, sepia wash over a pencil sketch, bordered with India ink, 24.5 x 34.5 cm, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAndreas Achenbach (German, 1815-1910), Sunset after a Storm on the Coast of Sicily, 1853, oil on canvas, 32 3/4 x 42 1/4 inches (83.2 x 107.3 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. See Romanticism.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftKäthe Kollwitz (German, 1867-1945), Selbstibildnis am Tisch, II. Fassung (Self-Portrait at the Table, Second Version), c. 1893, etching and aquatint, image 18 x 12.6 cm; sheet 45 x 31.5 cm, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA. See Expressionism.

 

 

Käthe Kollwitz, Ende (End), from the series, A Weavers' Rebellion, 1898, mixed intaglio methods, 245 x 305 mm, Spencer Museum, KS. Click here for a 77 k image.

 

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightKäthe Kollwitz, Selbstbildnis mit der Hand an der Stirn (Self-Portrait with Hand on the Forehead), 1910, etching, plate 15.5 x 13.8 cm, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA.

 

see thumbnail to leftKäthe Kollwitz, Kleines Selbstbildnis (Small Self-Portrait), 1920, lithograph, sheet 32.4 x 24 cm; image 23.5 x 20 cm, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA.

 

see thumbnail to rightKäthe Kollwitz, Selbstbildnis (Self-Portrait), 1921, etching on paper, plate 8 1/2 x 10 1/2 inches (21.7 x 26.8 cm), National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, DC.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftKäthe Kollwitz, Kleines Selbstbildnis nach links (Small Self-Portrait from the left) (2nd version), 1922, lithograph, image 19 x 12.5 cm; sheet 34.6 x 25 cm, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightKäthe Kollwitz, Selbstbildnis von vorn (Self-Portrait from the Front), 1923, woodcut, image 15 x 15.6 cm, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftKäthe Kollwitz, Selbstbildnis im Profil nach Rechts (Self-Portrait in Profile to the Right), 1938, lithograph, image 47.9 x 29.4 cm; sheet 65.1 x 49.2 cm, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightEmil Nolde (German, 1867-1956), E.N. (Selbstporträt) (E. N. (Self-Portrait)), 1908, etching with tonal effects on iron, image 30.8 x 23.5 cm, printer, Otto Felsing, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA. See self-portrait.

 

 

Ernst Barlach (German, 1870-1938)

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightPaula Modersohn-Becker (German, 1876-1907), Self-Portrait, Half-Figure with Amber Necklace II (Selbstbildnis als Halbakt mit Bernsteinkette II), Summer of 1906, oil on canvas, 61 x 50 cm, Kunstmuseum, Basel, Switzerland. See Expressionism, feminism and feminist art, and self-portrait.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAugust Sander (German, 1876-1964), Arbeitslos, 1928, depicted: Germany, gelatin silver print, 23 x 17 cm (9 1/16 x 6 11/16 inches), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

Paul Klee (Swiss, born Germany , 1879-1940), Birds Making Scientific Experiments in Sex, 1915, pen and black ink, Michael C. Carlos Museum, Emery U, Atlanta, GA. See Bauhaus.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightPaul Klee, Temple Gardens, 1920, gouache and traces of ink on paper, 7 1/4 x 10 1/4 inches (18.4 x 26.7 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightErnst Ludwig Kirchner (German, 1880-1938), Two Women, 1911/22, oil on canvas, 59 x 47 inches (149.9 x 119.4 cm), Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftErnst Ludwig Kirchner, The Belle-Alliance-Platz in Berlin, 1914, oil on canvas, 200 x 150 cm, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMax Pechstein (German, 1881-1955), Selbstbildnis mit Pfeife (Raucher) (Self-Portrait with Pipe (Smoker)), from Die Schaffenden (Weimar, 1924), 1921, woodcut, image 34 x 28 cm, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA. See self-portrait.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftErich Heckel (German, 1883-1970), Standing Child, 1910, color woodcut, 14 7/8 x 10 7/8 inches (37.7 x 27.6 cm), Los Angeles County Museum of Art. See Die Brücke.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightErich Heckel, Bildnis E.H. (Self-Portrait), 1917, woodcut, image 36.4 x 29.5 cm; sheet 61.6 x 50.7 cm, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA. See self-portrait.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftMax Beckmann (German, 1884-1950), Beginning, 1949, oil on canvas, 69 x 125 1/2 inches (175.3 x 318.8 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightKarl Schmidt-Rottluff (German, 1884-1976), Selbstbildnis (Self-Portrait), 1914, woodcut, image 34.9 x 29.7 cm; sheet 57.8 x 45.1 cm, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA. See Die Brücke and self-portrait.

 

 

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (German-American, born Germany, 1886-1969), a drawing of the Friedrichstrasse Office Building, Berlin, 1921. Mies van der Rohe was the last director of the Bauhaus design school in Dessau, from 1930 until its closing in 1932.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftLudwig Mies van der Rohe, designer, "MR" Armchair, 1927, chrome-plated steel and painted caning, 31 1/2 x 22 x 37 inches (80 x 55.9 x 94 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. This was developed from a 1924 design for a cantilevered chair by Mart Stam. It was introduced by Mies van der Rohe at the 1927 Stuttgart exhibition and has remained in production ever since. See furniture.

 

 

Otto Dix (German, 1891-1969), The Journalist Sylvia Von Harden, 1926, oil and tempera on wood, 121 x 89 cm, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.

 

 

George Grosz (German, 1893-1959), Remember Uncle August, the Unhappy Inventor, 1919, oil, pencil, paper and five buttons adhered to canvas, 49 x 39.5 cm, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightLux Feininger (American, born Germany, 1910-), Clemens Röseler, c. 1928, gelatin silver print, 11.3 x 8.9 cm (4 7/16 x 3 1/2 inches), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftGerhard Richter (German, 1932-), Abstract Painting No. 439, 1978, oil on canvas, 200.0 x 300.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London. See abstraction.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightGerhard Richter, Self-Portrait, Three Times, 24.1.90, 1990, oil on photograph, 50.0 x 60.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London. See self-portrait.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftHans Haacke (German, 1936-), A Breed Apart, 1978, photographs on paper laid on hardboard, 91.0 x 91.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London. From the mid-1960s, Haacke produced boldly political works exposing systems of power and influence. Many of these have focused on the unethical practices of multinational corporations, but he has also examined the power relations within the art world itself. A Breed Apart targeted British Leyland, an auto manufacturer, pitting glamorized advertising images against brutal 'real' world ones, drawing attention to the double standards of British Leyland's involvement with the South African apartheid regime.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAnselm Kiefer (German, 1945-), Parsifal I, 1973, oil on paper laid on canvas, 324.7 x 219.8 cm, Tate Gallery, London. See Neo-Expressionism.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAnselm Kiefer, Parsifal II, 1973, oil and blood on paper laid on canvas, 324.7 x 218.8 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAnselm Kiefer, Parsifal III, 1973, oil and blood on paper on canvas, 300.7 x 434.5 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAnselm Kiefer, Lilith, 1987-9, oil, ash and copper wire on canvas, 380.0 x 560.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAnselm Kiefer, Bohemia Lies by the Sea, 1996, oil, emulsion, shellac, charcoal and powdered paint on burlap, overall: 75 1/4 x 221 inches (191.1 x 561.3 cm); two panels, each: 75 1/4 x 110 1/2 inches (191.1 x 280.7 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

see thumbnail to leftThomas Struth (German, 1954-), San Zaccaria, 1995, depicted: Venice, Italy, chromogenic print, 181.9 x 230.5 cm (71 5/8 x 90 3/4 inches), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Here is a side altar in Venice's San Zaccaria above which Giovanni Bellini painted a Madonna in 1505. It reigns over the adjacent paintings and all the surrounding space. See Renaissance.

 

 

 

 

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Also see architecture, arms & armor, Bauhaus, Celtic art, costume, Dada, Danish art, degenerate, Der Blaue Reiter, design, Die Brücke, drawing, Dutch art, engraving, etching, expressionism, Expressionism, fascist aesthetic, flags of Europe, Fluxus, French art, furniture, genre, Gothic, history painting, illumination, Impressionism, jewelry, landscape, lithography, Madonna, marble, Middle Ages, monument, museum, mythology, narrative art, Neoclassicism, Northern Renaissance, nude, pastel, photography, Polish art, porcelain, portrait, propaganda, Romanticism, sculpture, seascape, self-portrait, Spanish art, stained glass, still life, Surrealism, Swiss art, tapestry, textile, watercolor, and woodcut, among many other articles.

 

 

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