animation - Giving movement to a thing. Also, making animated cartoons — films that are also called animations. Types of animation include cel animation, clay animation (also called claymation), and computer animation.
Walt Disney (American, 1901-1966), maker, Steamboat Willie, 1928, 35mm film, black and white, sound, 8 minutes, Museum of Modern Art, NY. See cinema.
George Pal (Hungarian, 1908-1981) created puppet animations. This type of animation is sometimes called replacement animation, although George Pal called them puppetoons.
Osamu Tezuka (Japanese, 1928-1989) is generally given credit for devising Japanese anime style. A great admirer of the work of Americans Walt Disney and Max Fleisher, Tezuka created his first widely popular character, Astro Boy, in a 1951 comic book. Astro Boy was a space-age Pinocchio-like creation. Tezuka turned Astro Boy into an animated TV series in 1963. (Astro Boy © Tezuka Productions.)
Also see anime, art careers, cinema, four-dimensional, gestalt, kinetic, measure, mobile, music, new media, periodicity, puppet, rhythm, sequence, space-time, theater, time, tradigital, and video.