Abstract Expressionism or abstract expressionism - A painting movement in which artists typically applied paint rapidly, and with force to their huge canvases in an effort to show feelings and emotions, painting gesturally, non-geometrically, sometimes applying paint with large brushes, sometimes dripping or even throwing it onto canvas. Their work is characterized by a strong dependence on what appears to be accident and chance, but which is actually highly planned. Some Abstract Expressionist artists were concerned with adopting a peaceful and mystical approach to a purely abstract image. Usually there was no effort to represent subject matter. Not all work was abstract, nor was all work expressive, but it was generally believed that the spontaneity of the artists' approach to their work would draw from and release the creativity of their unconscious minds. The expressive method of painting was often considered as important as the painting itself.

Artists who painted in this style include Hans Hoffman (German-American, 1880-1966), Adolph Gottlieb (American, 1903-1974), Mark Rothko (American, 1903-1970), Willem De Kooning (Dutch-American, 1904-1997), Clyfford Still (American, 1904-1980), Barnett Newman (American, 1905-1970), Franz Kline (American, 1910-1962), William Baziotes (American, 1912-1963), Jackson Pollock (American, 1912-1956), Philip Guston (American, 1913-1980), Ad Reinhardt (American, 1913-1967), Robert Motherwell (American, 1915-1991), Sam Francis (American, 1923-1994), and Helen Frankenthaler (American, 1928-). Abstract Expressionism originated in the 1940s, and became popular in the 1950s.

 

Examples:

Listed chronologically by artist's birth year

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Hans Hofmann (American, born Germany, 1880-1966), Self-Portrait with Brushes, casein paint on plywood, 1942, André Emmerich Gallery, New York City.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightHans Hofmann, Rising Sun, 1958, oil on canvas, 60 x 72 inches, Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, MO.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftHans Hofmann, Pompeii, 1959, oil on canvas, 214.0 x 132.7 cm, Tate Gallery, London. See push and pull.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightHans Hofmann, Simplex Munditis, 1962, oil on canvas, 84 x 72 inches, Santa Barbara Museum of Art, CA.

 

 

Mark Tobey (American, 1890-1976), Electric Night, 1944, tempera on paper mounted on board, 17 1/2 x 13 inches (46 x 34.2 cm), Seattle Art Museum, WA. Tobey was greatly influenced by Asian art. His works after 1935 were entirely generated by lines in a style he called "white writing" typically calligraphic white patterns ranging over non-objective color backgrounds. He influenced the French painters of tachisme.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMark Tobey, Cloud, 1954, tempera on paper, 21 x 20 cm, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Iran.

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftMark Tobey, Untitled, 1961, color lithograph, image 23.2 x 31.8 cm, sheet 44.1 x 51.9 cm inches, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMark Tobey, Trio, 1970, intaglio, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

Adolph Gottlieb (American, 1903-1974), Sundeck, 1936, oil on canvas, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gottlieb painted Sundeck before he turned to abstraction. See New Deal art.

 

 

Adolph Gottlieb, Pictograph, c. 1941-1946, National Museum of American Art, Washington D.C. Gottlieb referred to the elements of his paintings as pictographs meaning signs, symbols, calligraphs, or glyphs. Sometimes he set each of these within its own compartment, as he did here, and sometimes he layered one above another, as he did in many later examples of his work.

 

 

Adolf Gottlieb, Apaquogue, 1961, oil on canvas, 72 x 90 inches, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, TX.

 

 

Adolph Gottlieb, Blues, 1962, National Museum of American Art, Washington, D.C.

 

 

Adolph Gottlieb, Night Glow, 1971, National Museum of American Art, Washington, D.C.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMark Rothko (born Marcus Rothkowitz) (American, born Russia, 1903-1970), Number 2, 1954, oil on canvas, 291.5 x 207 cm, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Iran. See rectangle.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftMark Rothko, Sienna, Orange & Black on Dark Brown, 1962, oil on canvas, 193 x 175 cm, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Iran.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMark Rothko, N° 14 (Browns over Dark), 1963, oil and acrylic on canvas, 228.5 x 176 cm, Georges Pompidou Center, Paris.

 

 

Arshile Gorky (born Vosdanig Manoog Adoian) (American, born in Turkish Armenia, 1904-1948), Still Life of Flowers, 1928, National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC.

 

see thumbnail to leftArshile Gorky, Composition, 1936-1939, oil on canvas, 30 x 37 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts. See New Deal art.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightArshile Gorky, The Artist's Mother, 1938, charcoal, 63 x 48.5 cm, Art Institute of Chicago, IL.

 

 

Arshile Gorky, The Liver is the Cock's Comb, 1944, oil on canvas, 73 1/4 x 98 inches (186 x 249 cm), Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftArshile Gorky, Virginia Landscape, 1944, oil on canvas, 40 x 51 inches (101.6 x 129.5 cm), Cincinnati Art Museum, OH.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightArshile Gorky, Landscape-Table, 1945, oil on canvas, 92 x 121 cm, Georges Pompidou Center, Paris.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftArshile Gorky, Summation, 1947, pencil, pastel, and charcoal on buff paper mounted on composition board, 6 feet 7 5/8 inches x 8 feet 5 3/4 inches (202.1 x 258.2 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightWillem de Kooning (American, born Netherlands, 1904-1997), Woman, 1944, oil and charcoal on canvas, 46 x 32 inches (116.8 x 81.3 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftWillem de Kooning, Light in August, 1946, oil and enamel on canvas, 139.8 x 105.5 cm, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Iran.

 

see thumbnail to rightWillem de Kooning, Night, 1948, oil on canvas, 23 x 28 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts. See nocturne.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftWillem de Kooning, Seated Woman, 1952, pastel, pencil, and oil on two hinged sheets of paper, overall 12 1/8 x 9 1/2 inches (30.8 x 24.2 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightWillem de Kooning, Women Singing II, 1966, oil on paper laid on canvas, 91.4 x 61.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftWillem de Kooning, The Visit, 1966-1967, oil on canvas, 152.4 x 121.9 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

Clyfford Still (American, 1904-1980), Painting, 1951, 1951, oil on canvas, width 192.4 cm, Detroit Institute of the Arts, MI.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightClyfford Still, 1951-N, 1951, oil on canvas, 92 5/16 x 69 1/8 inches (2.345 x 1.756 m), National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

Clyfford Still, 1956-J No. 1, Untitled, 1956, oil on canvas, 104 1/2 x 115 inches, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, TX.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJohn Ferren (American, 1905-1970), The Windows,1958, National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightBarnett Newman (American, 1905-1970), Moment, 1946, oil on canvas, 76.2 x 40.6 cm, Tate Gallery, London. See zip.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftBarnett Newman, Pagan Void, 1946, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

Barnett Newman, Dionysius, 1949, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightBarnett Newman, The Name, 1949, brush and black ink, .611 x .380 m (24 1/16 x 15 inches), National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftBarnett Newman, Eve, 1950, oil on canvas, 238.8 x 172.1 x 5.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightBarnett Newman, The Name II, 1950, Magna and oil on canvas, 104 x 94 1/2 inches (2.642 x 2.400 m), National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. See zip.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftBarnett Newman, Adam, 1951-2, oil on canvas, 242.9 x 202.9 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightBarnett Newman, Not There-Here, 1962, oil and casein on canvas, 198 x 89.4 cm, Georges Pompidou Center, Paris.

 

 

Barnett Newman, The Third, 1962, oil on canvas, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN.

 

see thumbnail to leftBarnett Newman, Untitled Etching #1, 1969, etching and aquatint, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

James Brooks (American, 1906-1992).

 

 

see thumbnail to rightDavid Smith (American, 1906-1965), Becca, 1965, stainless steel, 113 1/4 x 123 x 30 1/2 inches (287.7 x 312.4 x 77.5 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftLee Krasner (American, 1908-1984), Self-Portrait, c. 1930, oil on linen, 30 1/8 x 25 1/8 inches, Estate of Lee Krasner. See feminism and feminist art and self-portrait.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightLee Krasner, Gothic Landscape, 1961, oil on canvas, 176.8 x 237.8 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

Jack Bush (Canadian, 1909-1977)

 

 

Enrico Donati (American, 1909-), From Body to Soul, oil on canvas, Detroit Institute of Arts, MI.

 

 

Morris Graves (American, 1910-2001), Wheelbarrow, 1934, National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC. See New Deal art.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftMorris Graves, Logged Mountains, c. 1935-1943, oil on canvas, 26 1/8 x 36 1/8 inches (66.3 x 91.6 cm), National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

Morris Graves, Oregon, from the United States Series, c. 1948, National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightMorris Graves, Hibernation, 1954, National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFranz Kline (American, 1910-1962), Palmerton, Pa., 1941, painting, National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

Franz Kline, New York, N.Y., 1953, oil on canvas, 79 x 51 in. (200.6 x 129.5 cm), Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFranz Kline, Untitled, c. 1954, oil on paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, TX.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFranz Kline, Four Square, 1956, oil on canvas, 1.99 x 1.29 m (78 3/8 x 50 3/4 inches), National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFranz Kline, C & O, 1958, oil on canvas, 1.96 x 2.79 m (77 x 110 inches), National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

Franz Kline, Siskind, 1958, oil on canvas, Detroit Institute of Arts, MI.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFranz Kline, Untitled, c. 1959, National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightFranz Kline, Merce C, 1961, National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftFranz Kline, Untitled, 1961, National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

William Baziotes (American, 1912-1963), Dusk, 1954, oil on canvas, New Britain, CT.

 

 

Morris Louis (American, 1912-1962)

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJackson Pollock (American, 1912-1956), Naked Man with Knife, c. 1938-40, oil on canvas, 127.0 x 91.4 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJackson Pollock, Birth, c. 1941, oil on canvas, 116.4 x 55.1 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJackson Pollock, The Moon-Woman Cuts the Circle, 1943, oil on canvas, 109.5 x 104 cm, Georges Pompidou Center, Paris. See the WebMuseum's page about Pollock.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJackson Pollock, Night Mist, 1945, oil on canvas, Norton Museum, West Palm Beach, FL.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJackson Pollock, Shimmering Substance (Sounds in the Grass Series), 1946, oil on canvas, 30 1/8 x 24 1/4 inches (76.3 x 61.6 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY.

 

 

Jackson Pollock, Cathedral, 1947, enamel and aluminum paint on canvas, 71 1/2 x 35 1/8 inches (181.6 x 89.2 cm), Dallas Museum of Art.

 

see thumbnail aboveJackson Pollock, Summertime: Number 9A, 1948, oil, enamel and house paint on canvas, 84.8 x 555.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJackson Pollock, Number 23, 1948, enamel on gesso on paper, 57.5 x 78.4 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJackson Pollock, Number 26 A, Black and White, 1948, oil on canvas, 205 x 121.7 cm, Georges Pompidou Center, Paris.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJackson Pollock, Painting (Silver over Black, White, Yellow and Red), 1948, painting on paper mounted on canvas, 61 x 80 cm, Georges Pompidou Center, Paris.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJackson Pollock, Mural on Indian Red Ground, 1950, oil and enamel on board, 183 x 243.5 cm, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Iran.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm (#30), 1950, oil on canvas, 105 x 207 inches (266.7 x 525.8 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJackson Pollock, One (Number 31, 1950), 1950, oil and enamel on unprimed canvas, 8 feet 10 inches x 17 feet 5 5/8 inches (269.5 x 530.8 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJackson Pollock, Untitled, c. 1950, ink on paper, 17 1/2 x 22 1/4 inches (44.5 x 56.6 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY.

 

see thumbnail to rightJackson Pollock, Number 14, 1951, enamel on canvas, 146.5 x 269.5 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJackson Pollock, Yellow Islands, 1952, oil on canvas, 143.5 x 185.4 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJackson Pollock, The Deep, 1953, painting on canvas, 220.4 x 150.2 cm, Georges Pompidou Center, Paris.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftPhilip Guston (American, 1913-1980), The Return, 1956-8, oil on canvas, 178.1 x 199.1 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

Philip Guston, Barnett Newman (American, 1905-1970), c. 1960, ink on paper, Estate of Philip Guston, courtesy McKee Gallery, New York City.

 

 

Conrad Marca-Relli (American, 1913-), Winter Blue, 1982, mixed-media on canvas, Columbia Museum of Art, SC.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAd Reinhardt (American, 1913-1967), Untitled, 1940, oil on canvas, National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAd Reinhardt, Red and Blue Composition, 1941, oil on canvas, National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAd Reinhardt, Untitled, 1947, oil on canvas, 40 x 32 inches (1.016 x .813 m), National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftAd Reinhardt, Abstract Painting, c. 1951-2, oil on canvas, 203.2 x 106.7 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightAd Reinhardt, Abstract Painting No. 9, 1960-1966, oil on canvas, 62 x 62 inches, Minneapolis Institute of Arts.

 

 

Ad Reinhardt, Black Painting No. 34, 1964, oil on canvas, 60 1/4 x 60 1/8 inches (1.530 x 1.526 m), National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. See Minimalism.

 

 

William Scott (British, 1913-1989)

 

 

Alberto Burri (Italian, 1915-1995)

 

 

Robert Motherwell (American, 1915-1991), Personage (Autoportrait) , December 9, 1943, paper collage, gouache, and ink on board, 108 x 65.9 cm, Peggy Guggenheim Collection.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftRobert Motherwell, Ulysses, 1947, oil and cardboard on wood, 85.7 x 71.1 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

Robert Motherwell, Mural Fragment, 1950, oil on composition board, 96 x 144 inches, Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, U of Minnesota.

 

 

Elmer Bischoff (American, 1916-1991). Elmer Bischoff is most widely known for the paintings he did after he had broken away from abstract expressionism, as a proponent of Bay Area Figuration (also called West Coast Figuration).

 

 

Hedda Sterne (American, 1916-)

 

 

Cleve Gray (American, 1918-)

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightElaine Fried de Kooning (American, 1920-1989), Self-Portrait, 1946, oil on Masonite, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. See feminism and feminist art.

 

 

 

Elaine Fried de Kooning, Bacchus #3, 1978, acrylic and charcoal on canvas, 78 x 50 inches, National Museum of Women in Art, Washington, DC.

 

 

Karel Appel (Dutch, 1921-2006)

 

 

see thumbnail to leftGrace Hartigan (American, 1922-), The Massacre, 1952, oil on canvas, 81 x 130 inches, Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, MO.

 

 

 

The Abstract-Expressionist painters who followed the artists above are generally known as members of the "second generation" of Abstract Expressionists.

These include:

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightSam Francis (American, 1923-1994), In Lovely Blueness, 1955-1957, oil on canvas, 300 x 700 cm, Georges Pompidou Center, Paris.

 

see thumbnail to leftSam Francis, Around the Blues, 1957 / 62, oil and acrylic on canvas, 275.1 x 487.1 cm, Tate Gallery, London.

 

 

Paul Jenkins (American, 1923-)

 

 

Jean-Paul Riopelle (Canadian, 1923-), Pavane, 1954, oil on canvas, 300 x 550.2 cm, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa.

 

 

Antoni Tàpies (Spanish, 1923-)

 

 

Kenneth Noland (American, 1924-)

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJoan Mitchell (American, 1926-1992), City Landscape, 1955, oil on canvas, 80 x 80 inches (203.2 x 203.2 cm), Art Institute of Chicago, IL.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftJoan Mitchell, Untitled, 1959-60, oil on canvas, 76 x 114 inches, Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, MO.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightJoan Mitchell, Wet Orange, 1971, oil on canvas, Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, PA.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftHelen Frankenthaler (American, 1928-), Coral Wedge, 1972, acrylic on canvas, 81 1/2 x 46 1/2 inches, Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, MO.

 

 

Al Held (American, 1928-)

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightCy Twombly (American, living in Italy since 1957, 1928-), Untitled, c. 1953, oil based house paint and graphite on paper, 19 1/4 x 27 1/4 inches, Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, MO.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftCy Twombly (American, 1928-), The Italians, 1961, oil, pencil, and crayon on canvas, 6 feet 6 5/8 inches x 8 feet 6 1/4 inches (199.5 x 259.6 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY. Art critics have described Twombly's paintings as akin to painted palimpsests.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightCy Twombly, Untitled, 1961, oil and charcoal on canvas, St. Louis Art Museum.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftCy Twombly, Leda and the Swan, 1962, oil, pencil and crayon on canvas, 6 feet 3 inches x 6 feet 6 3/4 inches (190.5 x 200 cm), private collection.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightCy Twombly, Ohne Titel (Roma), 1969, oil and crayon on canvas.

 

 

Jasper Johns (American, 1930-)

 

 

Choi Wook-Kyung (American, 1940-1985)

 

 

see thumbnail to leftRaphael Collazo (American, born Puerto Rico, 1943-1990), The Magic Is Back, 1986, mixed media on panel, 96 x 80 inches, Collazo Foundation, NY.
Visit the Museo Collazo website (Collazo Foundation) for reproductions of and information about 300 paintings.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightRaphael Collazo, Wing Venation, 1986, mixed media on panel, 90 x 96 inches, Collazo Foundation, NY.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftRaphael Collazo, Forest Rendezvous, 1989, mixed media on panel, 80 x 82 inches, Collazo Foundation, NY.

 

 

George Morrison (Native American)

 

Photographs of the artists:

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightNina Leen (American, 1909-1995), The Irascibles, 1950, Life magazine. Front row, left to right: Theodore Stamos, Jimmy Ernst (son of Max Ernst), Barnett Newman, James Brooks, Mark Rothko. Middle row: Richard Pousette-Dart, William Baziotes, Jackson Pollock, Clyfford Still, Robert Motherwell, Bradley Walker Tomlin. Back row: Willem De Kooning, Adolph Gottlieb, Ad Reinhardt, and Hedda Sterne.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftKay Bell Reynal (American, 1905-1977), Mark Rothko (American, 1903-1970), 1952, gelatin silver print, Photos of Artists Collection 1, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

 

 

see thumbnail to rightArthur Swoger (American, 1912-), Philip Guston in his New York loft, 1957, gelatin silver print, Estate of Philip Guston, courtesy McKee Gallery, New York City.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftHans Namuth (American, 1915-1990), Pollock painting, 1950, gelatin silver prints, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. This is one of at least five photographs Namuth made of Pollock painting. Their publication in Life magazine in 1951 caused a great sensation.

 

 

Here is see thumbnail to righta second one,

 

 

 

see thumbnail to lefta third,

 

 

 

see thumbnail to righta fourth,

 

 

see thumbnail to leftand a fifth.

 

 

 

 

 

see thumbnail to leftHans Namuth, Barnett Newman, Jackson Pollock, and Tony Smith at the Betty Parsons Gallery, gelatin silver print, April 1951, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC.

 

 

 

see thumbnail to rightHans Namuth, Clyfford Still, 1951, gelatin silver print, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC.


 

Critics of Abstract Expressionism:

 

 

see thumbnail to rightHans Namuth (American, 1915-1990), Clement Greenberg (American, 1909-1994) outside Jackson Pollock's studio, 1951, gelatin silver print, collection of Mrs. Clement Greenberg. See art critic.

 

 

Phyllis Herfield (American, 1947-), Clement Greenberg (American, 1909-1994), 1984, tempera on wood panel, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

 

 

Elaine Fried de Kooning (American, 1920-1989), Thomas B. Hess (American, 1920-1978), 1956, oil on board, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

 

 

see thumbnail to leftElaine Fried de Kooning, Harold Rosenberg (American, 1906-1978), oil on canvas, 1956, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

 

 


Dealers of Abstract Expressionism:

 

 

see thumbnail to rightHenry Schnakenberg (American, 1894-1970), Betty Parsons (American, 1900-1982), 1929, oil on canvas, collection of Mrs. Henry N. Tifft.

 

 


Related Links:

 

 

Also see Action Painting, aleatory and aleatoric, expressionism, Expressionism, flat, isms and -ism, and nonobjective art.

 

 

 

 

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